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詞匯:代詞-2019年專升本英語復習重點-山東專升本

山東成人高考網www.hakuei-piano.com 發布時間: 2019年01月02日

       代詞包括

  人稱代詞、物主代詞、反身代詞、指示代詞、疑問代詞、關系代詞、不定代詞及其用法。

  一、人稱代詞

  人稱代詞有第一、第二、第三人稱和單數、復數之分,在句子中可以作主語和賓

  語。英語中有下列人稱代詞:

  在并列的主語或賓語中,I或me 通常放在后面。如:

  Liping and I are in charge of the work.

  My farther asks my sister and me to have dinner with him tomorrow.

  二、物主代詞

  物主代詞有形容詞型與名詞型之分。形容詞型物主代詞在句子中作定語,名詞型物主代詞在句子中主要作主語、賓語、表語、定語(接在of 后面)。英語中有下列物主代詞:

  名詞型的物主代詞相當于形容詞型的物主代詞加上上文出現的名詞。如:

  My bag is yellow, his(his bag) is black and theirs(their bags) are brown.

  三、反身代詞

  反身代詞在句子中可以作賓語、表語、同位語等。如:

  Please help yourself to some tea.(賓語)

  The boy is too young to look after himself.(賓語)

  I'll be myself again in no time.(表語)

  The desk itself is not so heavy. (同位語)

  四、指示代詞

  指示代詞包括this, that, these, those 和such, 在句子中可以作主語、定語、表語、賓語等(such不作賓語)。

  that和those有時分別用來代表前面提到的不可數名詞和名詞復數,以避免重復。而可數名詞單數往往用the one 或that one 來代替。用the one 的時候更多一些。如:

  These machines are better than those we turned out last year. 生產

  The oil output of this year is much higher than that of last year. 產量

  The best wine is that from France.

  My room is lighter than the one next door.

  I'll take the seat next to the one by the window.

  The film is more funny than that one.

  that 可以指上面提到的事情,this指下面要談的事情。如:

  They have no time to read the books. That's their trouble.

  She was ill yesterday. That's why she was absent.

  What I want to say is this: Pronunciation is very important in learning English.

  this 和that 有時還可以用來表示程度。如:

  I don't want that much.

  The book is about this thick.

  五。疑問代詞

  疑問代詞包括what, which, who, whom, whose, 可以用來構成特殊疑問句,也可以引導名詞從句。 What, which, who在句子中作主語或賓語,whom作賓語,whose作定語。如:

  Which do you prefer, the yellow one or the white one? (賓語)

  What's your sister?(表語)

  The man who is talking with my mother is an engineer.(引導定從句)

  The old man whose son is studying abroad is our formal dean of the department. (引導定從句)

  I don't remember whom I have lent my dictionary to. (引導賓語從句)

  疑問代詞what, which, who, whom后面可以加ever來加重語氣。如:

  Whoever can be calling at this time of the night ?誰這么深更半夜來找人?

  I'll say whatever comes into my head.

  Take whichever book you like.

  六。不定代詞

  不定代詞包括both, either, neither, all, none, no, one, each, every, few, a few, little, a little, many, much, some, any, other, another, 以及some, any, no, every構成的合成代詞。

  (一)both, either, neither

  both 表示“兩者(都)”,either表示“(兩者之中)任何一個”,neither表示“(兩者之中)沒有一個”。三個詞在句子中都可以作主語、賓語、定語,both還可以作同位語。

  My sister is good at planning her time so that she always has enough time for both work and play.(be good at 擅長做某事)

  Neither of the answers is right.

  Either of the books belongs to you.

  You and I are both to blame.

  You both agreed to stay.

  Both 放在實意動詞前,系動詞be 的后面。

  (二)all, none, no, one

  all和none用于三者以上的場合,分別表示“全部都”和“一個都沒有”,none往往與of連用。

  All of us are fond of sports. (be fond of 愛好)

  We are all for him. (be for sb 支持某人)

  Grasp all, lose all. 什么都抓,什么都抓不住。(諺)

  None of them know how to read and write.

  None of them has had that kind of experience.

  no表示“沒有”,在句子中只能作定語,相當于not a 或not any,not否定動詞,no否定名詞。

  Time and tide wait for no man. 歲月不等人。(諺)

  I'm no dancer. (I'm not a dancer.)

  one 指代上文提到的人或物,前面可以加定冠詞,可以有自己的定語,還可以有復數形式。

  Your answer is a good one.

  I don't like coloured envelopes. I like white ones.

  (三)each, every

  each 和every表示“每一個”,every 在句子中只能作定語,each 可以作主語、賓語、定語、同位語。

  The headmaster shook hands with each of the teacher.(shake hands with 握手)

  The students try to set aside a little money each month.(set aside 節約)

  From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs(work)。各盡所能,按需分配。

  I have every reason to believe that she can finish the job well.

  There is every possibility of our winning the game.

  every 還常用在every little while (每隔一會),every other day, every three days(每隔兩天),every ten miles(每隔十英里), every now and then (不時),every four years, every other line, one out of every three students.

  (四)few, a few, little, a little, many, much

  few, a few, many 修飾或指代可數名詞,little, a little, much修飾或指代不可數名詞。few, little表示否定,a few, a little表示肯定,much常用于否定句中。

  Many hands make light work. 人多好辦事。(諺)

  Few words are best. 話少最好。(諺)

  They don't take much interest in it.

  I know little about it.

  There's a little water left in the jar.

  Few of them have been to India.

  I've read a few books written by Dickens.

  (五)other, the other, others, the others, another

  Forty people came to the meeting. Two of them were from Japan, the others from America.

  Many people came to attend the meeting. Some were from Japan, others were from America.

  The United States, unlike many other countries, receives a large number of immigrants every year from all over the world.

  The twin sisters are so alike that we find it difficult to tell one from the other.(so……that 如此以至于 tell sb. from 區分)

  The task will be finished in another three days.

  Four of them are in the classroom. What about the others?

  Please give me another example to illustrate your point.

  七、it的用法

  2.作句子的形式主語,代替不定式、動名詞或從句。

  It took me five minutes to finish reading the exercise.

  It cost me five yuan to buy the pen.

  The color TV set costs me more than 2,000 yuan.

  I spent ten hours in finishing the work.

  I spent twenty yuan on the shirt.

  It is no use crying now. You'd better study hard now.(it is no use doing sth. )

  To his surprise, it turned out that Tom failed the entrance examination.(to one's surprise 使某人感到驚奇)

  It's a pity that you didn't watch the match.

  It is necessary for us to have some exercise every day.

  3.作句子的形式賓語,代替不定式、動名詞或從句。

  They all regard it their duty to help the poor people.

  I don't think it worthwhile taking so much trouble.(It's worthwhile doing. 做……事是值得的)

  We find it difficult to learn English without practicing.

  I don't think it very important that we should take part in the discussion.(take part in 參加)

  4.構成強調句型。當強調的部分是主語,并且主語是人時,句型中的that 也可以換作who.

  強調句基本構成 it is that…

  It is in the room that we met each other for the first time.

  It was not until 1936 that basketball became a part of the Olympic Games.(not until 直到……才)

  It was they who attended the meeting last week.

  It is because the book is so useful for my work that I bought it.


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